Heart-Healthy Benefits of Omega-3

Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of fats that are important for the body. Omega-3 fats are essential for the proper function of the body’s cells because they form part of the cell membrane (the structure that separates the interior of the cell from its surroundings) and are responsible for the proper function of receptors (structures found within the cell membrane that facilitate communication between the cell and structures outside of the cell). Omega-3 fatty acids are especially known for their role in heart health. 

How Do Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Heart Health?

Omega-3 fatty acids are known to:

Lower blood pressure

High blood pressure over long periods of time weakens and damages the arteries (blood vessels that carry blood from the heart throughout the entire body). This increases the risk of an aneurysm (a bulge in an artery that can rupture and cause internal bleeding), coronary heart disease, and heart failure. 

Reduce arterial fat deposits

Research suggests that consuming omega-3 fatty acids helps prevent plaque build-up in the arteries. Scientists know that eating a diet high in cholesterol, in addition to lifestyle factors like smoking, causes plaque to build up and harden within the arteries, narrowing the opening of the arteries.

Prevent cardiac arrhythmias

Arrhythmia is a condition in which the heart beats with an abnormal or irregular rhythm—either too fast or too slow. Electrical stimulation coordinates a steady heartbeat. When these electrical impulses don’t work properly, this causes the heart to beat irregularly. Research shows that omega-3 fatty acids help prevent arrhythmia

What Foods are Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids?

Although essential to our health, the body cannot make omega-3 fats. Omega-3 fatty acids must be obtained by foods and beverages. There are 3 types of omega-3 fatty acids: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are found in fish, while ALA is found in plant oils. Each type of omega-3 plays a certain role in protecting heart health. Foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids include:

  • Fatty fish including salmon, tuna, and anchovies  
  • Flaxseed
  • Chia seed
  • Soybean
  • Walnuts
  • Algae

What is the Recommended Daily Intake of Omega-3?

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends eating 2 servings of fish (fish contains both EPA and DHA omega-3 fats) every week for good heart health. One serving of fish is outlined as 3.5 ounces of cooked fish or ¾ of a cup of flaked fish. 

There are currently no daily intake recommendations for ALA omega-3 fats (found in plant oils), but research does show that including them in your diet reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. 

Healthy individuals can typically get enough omega-3 fatty acids from their diet. People who have already suffered a cardiac event like a heart attack may benefit from taking a daily omega-3 supplement. However, it’s important to discuss what type of supplement you should be looking for as well as the dose with your doctor.  



Drug-Gene Testing: Can These Tests Help Determine the Best Medications for Patients?

A drug-gene interaction refers to how someone’s genes affect the way that they will react to a certain medication—will the medication work? Will it produce negative side effects? Many patients respond differently to the same medication. This creates a challenge for both doctors and pharmacists. 

Pharmacogenetics, also called pharmacogenomics, is the study of how a person’s genes can affect the way that their body responds to medications. Pharmacogenetics can help doctors and pharmacists create a medication regimen that meets the specific needs of each patient.  

How Do Someone’s Genes Affect How Their Body Responds to Medicine?

There are thousands of genes in the body. Genes carry information that tells the body how to make proteins that determine our traits, like eye color, blood type, and even how the body reacts to medications. Different people have different versions of the same genes. Each variation of a gene carries instructions to make a different type of protein, and therefore create different traits. This is why some people have blue eyes, while others have brown or green eyes. 

Genetic variations also determine how a person’s body processes medications. For example, the CYP2D6 gene produces an enzyme (a type of protein) called the CYP2D6 enzyme that processes painkillers in the liver. People who have a genetic variation of the CYP2D6 gene that makes the body produce a higher amount than normal of the CYP2D6 enzyme can process painkillers more quickly than those who make less. If a prescription painkiller is processed too fast by the body, it can potentially cause an overdose. Pharmacogenetics can help doctors understand what dose of painkillers works best for certain patients. For example, a doctor may prescribe a lower dose of painkiller for a patient who produces a lot of the CYP2D6 enzyme.

In the case of antidepressants, approximately one-third of patients do not find relief from depressive symptoms even after trying multiple antidepressants—this is referred to as treatment-resistant depression. More than half of all patients who take antidepressants report experiencing side effects, like dry mouth, headache, and decreased sex drive. Scientists are currently using pharmacogenetics to understand why some people do not respond to certain antidepressants and why some people experience side effects, while others don’t. 

Understanding Drug-Gene Interactions Helps Doctors and Pharmacists Provide Personalized Medication Regimens

The ultimate goal of medication therapy is to safely and effectively treat a patient with the correct medication, at the right dose, and at the right intervals, with the least amount of side effects. Doctors consider many factors when creating medication regiments, like age and medical history. Now, doctors can consider genetics. 

Should Everyone Get Drug-Gene Testing?

In some cases, drug-gene testing can be very valuable. When a drug-gene interaction is well established, drug-gene testing can help protect someone from life-threatening side effects. But not all drug-gene interactions are life-threatening, and genetic variations aren’t the only factor that affects how the body processes medications.

Many factors influence how a persons’ body processes medications, like diet, age, gender, and whether or not the individual is a smoker. Although drug-gene testing can be very informative in certain situations, placing too much attention on drug-gene interaction can, in some cases, cause more harm than good. For example, some patients report feeling anxious or scared about taking certain medications after receiving results from a drug-gene test, even when they know that the medication is necessary for treating their condition. 

Where Can I Get Drug-Gene Testing?

Your doctor may recommend drug-gene testing if he/she is prescribing you a medication with a known drug-gene interaction, for example, medication for heart disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Some companies advertise at-home drug-gene testing kits, but patients should not make any changes to their medications before talking with their doctor. 



How the Brain Responds to Different Types of Exercise

Exercise is great for the brain. We know that different types of exercise benefit the body in different ways. Researchers now know that low- and high-intensity exercise have different effects on the brain, at rest after exercising. Both types of exercise boost mood. But researchers notice changes in specific brain functions after certain types of exercise.  

High-Intensity Exercise Increases Emotional Processing

After 30 minutes of high-intensity exercise (running on a treadmill), study participants showed a change in activity in multiple regions of the brain responsible for emotional processing—the sensorimotor network (SMN), the dorsal attention network (DAN), and the affective and reward network (ARN). High-intensity exercise is associated with an increase in brain activity involved in emotional processing (the ability to process stress and other intense emotions). This suggests that the brains of people who do high-intensity exercise may be better at processing difficult emotions compared to people who do not exercise or who do not do any high-intensity exercise. 

Low-Intensity Exercise Increases Cognitive Processing

After 30 minutes of low-intensity exercise (walking on a treadmill), study participants showed an increase in activity in the part of the brain responsible for executive functions—the fronto-parietal network (FPN) regions. This suggests that low-intensity exercise improves the brain’s ability to perform executive functions. Examples of executive functions include the ability to:

  • Concentrate
  • Regulate emotion and control behavior
  • Change one’s perspective
  • Adapt to new tasks quickly

What’s the Difference Between Low- and High-Intensity Exercise?

Low intensity and high-intensity exercise will look different for most people. That’s because every person has a different fitness level and health history. The most accurate way to measure the intensity of an exercise is through heart rate. For example, performing high-intensity exercise requires 77-93% of your maximum heart rate. The American Heart Association provides a guide for how to calculate your maximum heart rate according to your age. 

For those who don’t have access to a heart monitor, there is a way to gauge intensity through a simpler test, called the “talk test.” For example, During high-intensity exercise, it is not possible to say more than a few words before needing to take a breath, while during low-intensity exercise, it is easy to carry on a conversation without having to stop to take a breath. 

Get Started With a Well-Rounded Exercise Routine

If you currently do not exercise and are interested in starting an exercise routine, consider visiting your doctor first, especially if you have been diagnosed with a chronic condition like cardiovascular disease, diabetes (type 1 and type 2), or high blood pressure. Your doctor can help you understand the best types of physical activity to start with. He/she can also help you understand how intense your workouts should be according to your heart rate—doing too much high-intensity exercise can lead to injuries.

To create a well-rounded exercise plan, incorporate different types of physical activity into your routine. Examples of high-intensity exercise include running, cycling, and jump rope. Examples of low-intensity exercise include walking, swimming, and Thai Chi. But ultimately, the best types of exercise are those that are enjoyable and can be done on a near-daily basis.



How to Strengthen Your Immune System to Ward Off Illness

Fears regarding the coronavirus have sparked widespread curiosity about how to boost the immune system. A strong immune system helps protect the body from disease-causing pathogens and helps the body remove foreign and harmful pathogens from the body. 

There is no one way to guarantee that you won’t ever get sick, whether it’s with coronavirus or from a common cold. But there are things you can do every day to support your immune system and give it the best chance to fight off illness.  

Get Plenty of Quality Sleep

Sleep is the body’s way of restoring and recovering. Sleep is also an important part of strengthening the body’s immune system. While sleeping, the body releases a special protein, called cytokines, that are essential in targeting infections. Research tells us that sleep deprivation (getting less than the recommended amount of sleep for days, weeks, or even months) makes the body susceptible to many diseases, including chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. 

This doesn’t mean that sleeping more than necessary will support the immune system. In fact, researchers know that sleeping too much can contribute to the same health risks as sleeping too little. But it does mean that not getting enough good quality sleep can make someone more susceptible to getting sick. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that adults get 7 to 9 hours of sleep a night, while teenagers get anywhere from 8 to 10.

Eat a Well-Rounded Diet to Keep the Gut-Microbiota Healthy

The gut microbiota is a colony of billions of microorganisms, like bacteria, viruses, and fungi, found in the gastrointestinal tract. The gut microbiota helps the body digest food and also plays an important role in maintaining a healthy immune system. Scientists know that roughly 70% of the body’s immune system is found in the gut

The gut microbiota is healthier when there is a more diverse population of microorganisms. Foods that are known to harm the gut microbiota and decrease the diversity of microorganisms include greasy and packaged foods and even drinking too much alcohol. A varied diet rich in high-fiber foods, like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds, promotes a more diverse population of the gut microbiome.

Get a Handle on Stress

The current situation around COVID-19 may be stressful for some. Fear and anxiety can bring up strong emotions and can lead to overwhelming stress. Researchers know that stress, whether emotional or physical, negatively affects the immune system. Chronic stress lasting days or even years has a particularly detrimental effect on the immune system. 

Some examples of ways to manage stress include:

  • Deep breathing techniques: Shallow breathing is part of the stress response. Practicing deep breathing, also called belly or diaphragmatic breathing, gets more oxygen to the brain, which helps calm the nervous system and induce calmness. 
  • Creating and sticking to a routine: Routines can help improve mental health and reduce feelings of stress and anxiety.  
  • Exercise or be active every day: Exercise decreases tension, improves mood, and is even proven to help improve sleep quality.



Biologics vs Traditional Prescription Drugs: How Biologics Are Being Used to Heal a Wide Range of Conditions From Eczema to Arthritis

Prescription medications have traditionally been manufactured using chemical substances. More and more, physicians are treating patients diagnosed with a wide range of conditions with a new class of drugs, called biologics or biologic medicine.

What is Biologic Medicine?

In contrast to traditional medications that are made using chemical compounds, biologics are made using living cells from humans, animals, organisms like bacteria, and even plants. The oldest example of a biologic is a vaccine. Vaccines contain a very small amount of certain molecules, called antigens, from harmful pathogens that can cause deadly diseases. When a vaccine is administered, these antigens help teach or train the body’s immune system to recognize and attack harmful pathogens, like viruses, in the case of infection. Insulin is another example of a biologic. Insulin used to be isolated from the pancreas of pigs and cows. It was then sterilized before given to patients. But today, scientists can also use bacteria to produce synthetic human insulin. 

How Are Biologics Made?

Manufacturing biologic medicine requires tissue or cells from living organisms. Scientists genetically modify these living cells to produce certain molecules, like proteins and enzymes, found in the human body that can interact with the immune system. 

How Do Biologics Work?

Biologic drugs work by targeting and affecting the function of specific cells or chemicals in the immune system. Each medication targets a different cell or chemical in the immune system, depending on the condition it treats. For example, biologic medicines used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body’s immune system attacks the body’s own healthy tissue and causes inflammation and damage of the joints) are used to suppress the immune system by targeting T-cells associated with inflammation and joint tissue damage.  

What Are the Benefits of Biologics?

Biologics work by targeting a specific component of the immune system. Traditional prescription medications of chemical origin circulate through the entire body, affecting multiple organ systems and causing a wide range of side effects. Most biologic medications do not cause systemic side effects. However, they do come with their own set of side effects. For example, some biologics suppress the immune system, which can increase one’s risk of certain infections, like tuberculosis and sepsis. 

How Are Biologic Medications Administered?

As of now, biologics are not administered orally and must be administered either via injection or intravenous infusion. The molecular size of biologics—that being much bigger than chemically-derived drugs like, for example, aspirin—does not allow them to pass through the intestinal walls and therefore be absorbed by the body. Biologics are also sensitive to the chemical conditions of the gastrointestinal system and can be destroyed before being absorbed by the body. 

The Future of Biologics

The development of biologics has increased dramatically in the past two decades. The majority of biologic medicines available today are used to treat people with autoimmune disease, systemic diseases like cancer, and rare genetic diseases. Researchers continue to search for biologics that can help treat patients with all kinds of conditions. Since most patients prefer to take medications orally, researchers also continue to find ways to make biologics that can be taken orally.



How Working With Your Pharmacist Can Help You Adhere to Your Treatment Plan and Improve Your Health

Treatment Non-adherence at a Glance
50% of patients in developed countries don’t take their medications as prescribed. 
20% to 30% of new prescriptions are never filled.
Poor adherence causes 30% to 50% of treatment failures and 125,000 deaths per year in the US among patients diagnosed with a chronic disease. 

Patients diagnosed with chronic illness, like diabetes or high blood pressure, and complicated medication regimens are at an increased risk of not taking medications as instructed. Treatment adherence is the term used when patients take medications exactly as instructed by their doctor. The World Health Organization estimates that only 50% of patients in the US diagnosed with chronic illness adhere to treatment. 

Pharmacists play an important role in helping patients adhere to their treatment plan. How can patients work with their pharmacists to achieve treatment adherence? First, it’s important for patients to understand why they should adhere to treatment instructions.

Why Is it Important to Adhere to Medication and Treatment Plans?

The benefits of adhering to treatment instructions include saving you time and money, but most importantly it can save your life. Medication adherence:

  • Decreases overall medical expenses by reducing the risk of hospitalization. Health complications caused by medication non-adherence can require immediate hospital assistance. For example, not adhering to diabetes medications can cause extremely high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and diabetic coma. 
  • Prevents or delays the condition from getting worse. 
  • Decreases risk of death due to health complications associated with medication non-adherence.

How Can Your Pharmacist Help You Adhere to Your Treatment Plan?

Medication Therapy Management Programs

Medication therapy management (MTM) programs allow pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to work one-on-one with patients. These programs include a review of the patient’s medications and an action plan to support the patient’s adherence. In some cases, the pharmacist comes to the patient’s home. Other pharmacies make appointments at their location. Ask your pharmacy if they offer medication therapy management programs. 

Consolidating Medications to Make Pick-up Easier

Pharmacies can coordinate prescription refills so that you can pick up all of your medications on the same day each month, instead of having to come in multiple times for multiple medications. 

Reducing the Risk of Drug-Drug Interactions

If you’re taking multiple medications, pharmacists are able to identify possible interactions between two or more medications—called a drug-drug interaction. Drug-drug interactions can cause adverse side effects. Adverse side effects are one of the main reasons why patients stop taking their medications. If your pharmacist sees that there is the possibility of a drug-drug interaction, he/she can work with your doctor to find an alternative prescription and reduce the risk of adverse side effects. 

Get to Know Your Pharmacist and Keep in Touch

Having a personal connection with your doctor and your pharmacist is a big part of medication adherence. If you have questions about your medication, don’t hesitate to ask your doctor or your pharmacist. Taking medications exactly as instructed by your doctor could save your life. 



Can Your Mindset Affect Your Health? How Gratitude Boosts Your Immune System, Improves Heart Health, and More

New research is providing mounting evidence that gratitude has a major impact on physical and mental health. What is gratitude? In short, gratitude is being thankful—noticing and appreciating the positive things in life. 

Gratitude promotes optimism and happiness, but it can also provide important health benefits. 

Gratitude Improves Heart Health 

Recent studies suggest that gratitude could help improve heart health in people with cardiovascular disease. Researchers observed the effects of journaling gratitude on the health of patients diagnosed with heart failure. In this study, participants were randomly given a journal and asked to write two to three things they felt grateful for every day for eight weeks. Participants who journaled continued to receive their normal treatment. 

Laboratory testing of patients who participated in gratitude journaling showed a reduction of inflammation and an increase in heart rate variability (HRV) compared to patients who did not journal. Inflammation contributes to heart failure. HRV refers to the variation in time intervals between heartbeats and is an important indicator of heart health. Contrary to what most people may think, a healthy heart does not beat with perfectly timed variations between each beat. Instead, it beats at different intervals with variations of milliseconds. These variations are indicative of a healthy heart. Heart failure leads to a loss of HRV, meaning that there is less variation in these time intervals.

Gratitude Boosts the Immune System

Gratitude promotes optimism, a characteristic that has been proven to strengthen the immune system. One study observed the effects of optimism (expecting that good things rather than bad things will happen) among first-year law students. The results of this study found that when first-year law students were optimistic, and had relocated away from previous relationships and commitments, they experienced an increase in CD4+T cells (a type of immune cell that helps regulate the immune system) and an overall stronger reaction of the immune system.

Gratitude Helps Improve Mental Health 

Gratitude writing can help improve mental health in adults. One study observed the effects of gratitude writing on mental health. For this study, nearly 300 adults participated (most of whom were college students) who reported low mental health and were seeking psychotherapy. Patients were placed in one of three categories: a) therapy only, b) therapy with expressive writing (the patient’s thoughts and feelings), c) and therapy with gratitude writing (expressing gratitude to others). Patients who participated in gratitude writing in addition to therapy reported significant improvements in mental health, even 12 weeks after completing the writing exercise, compared to patients in the other two groups.

How Can You Incorporate Gratitude Into Your Day? 

A gratitude practice only requires a few minutes a day. Here are some ideas to help you get started practicing gratitude:

  • Journal 3 things that you’re grateful for every day. You can also add why you’re grateful for these things.
  • Each day, or anytime you have a thought of gratitude, write something that you’re grateful for on a piece of paper and place it in a jar. At the end of each week, month, or even at the end of the year, take them out and read what you wrote.
  • Write a gratitude letter to someone who helped you during a time of need, and express how thankful you are for them. It’s not necessary to send the letter. 
  • Share your gratitude with others. This can be as simple as saying “thank you” to someone who does something nice for you or giving someone a compliment. 



How Fertility Drugs Work: What Types of Fertility Drugs are Available and How They Increase the Chance of Pregnancy

Infertility is a reproductive condition that affects approximately 10 to 15 percent of couples in the US. It occurs when an irregularity in the body’s reproductive system prevents the conception of a child. Infertility affects both men and women, so it’s possible for both partners to have a fertility issue that needs to be diagnosed and treated. 

Infertility is generally treated with medications and surgery (about 85-90% of cases). Treatments can also include methods like weight loss, lifestyle changes, treating underlying conditions that can affect fertility, and even assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization (IVF). 

Fertility medications can come in the form of pills, injectables, or vaginal suppositories. The type of fertility treatment prescribed depends on multiple factors, including the cause of infertility, a patient’s medical history, and his/her age.

What Types of Fertility Drugs Are Available?

Fertility Drugs for Women

  • Medications that stimulate ovulation: Ovulation stimulation drugs stimulate the production and release of certain hormones—GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and/or LH (luteinizing hormone)—in the body to prompt the ovaries to make eggs.
  • Hormones that control ovulation for the process of artificial insemination: During assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments like IVF, certain drugs may be prescribed for different stages of the process. Hormones can be used to either stimulate or prevent ovulation, to help the body release several eggs at once, and to support early pregnancy.

Fertility Drugs for Men

Men’s fertility issues can stem from low levels of testosterone and high levels of estrogen. Low testosterone can affect the number of sperm cells the testicles produce, the health of the sperm cells, and the sperm’s ability for movement. The types of drugs used to treat male infertility include:

  • Medications that increase testosterone levels: Medications can be used to increase certain hormones in the body that then stimulate and increase the production of testosterone. Increasing testosterone levels helps the body increase sperm cell count (the number of sperm cells that are produced by the testicles).
  • Medications that decrease estradiol (estrogen) levels: Elevated estradiol (a type of estrogen) in men can affect sperm health. Certain medications can be used to prevent a process in the body where testosterone turns into estradiol. This results in decreased estradiol levels and increased testosterone, improving sperm count and sperm health. 

Fertility Drugs for Treating Medical Conditions in Both Men and Women

Fertility drugs can also include medications used to treat underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to infertility.

Your doctor may choose to treat a condition before starting infertility treatment or to implement fertility treatment alongside treatment for the condition. Some examples of medical conditions that can affect infertility include: 

  • Untreated diabetes
  • An infection of the reproductive tract
  • Conditions of the thyroid

When Should You Seek Help for Infertility?

If you and your partner have been trying to conceive without having success for 12 months, talk to your doctor about possible fertility issues. Getting the right diagnosis is essential to creating a successful fertility treatment plan. 



Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer: What Is it and How Does it work?

Cancer has traditionally been treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. But these treatments are often accompanied by painful side effects and, in addition to killing cancer cells, some of these treatments also kill the body’s healthy cells. 

Researchers have been dedicated to finding new cancer treatment options that can be used in combination with traditional cancer treatments or alone. Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a relatively new treatment option for cancer patients that helps the body’s immune system kill cancer cells. What exactly is immunotherapy and how does it work? First, it’s important to understand how the body’s immune system works.

The Immune System Protects the Body From Harmful Infections, Even Cancer

Infections and illnesses can occur from bacteria, viruses, other microorganisms like parasites, and even genetic mutations. The immune system recognizes harmful substances that can make a person sick by identifying specific structures on the cell surface, called antigens. All cells have antigens, but the antigens on the body’s healthy cells are different than the antigens found on the cells of harmful substances. When the body recognizes a harmful cell, it sends special immune cells, called T cells, to attack it. There are many different types of immune cells that all work together to identify and attack threatening substances in the body. 

The immune system is capable of identifying cancerous cells and fighting against them. But cancer cells can mutate and change in a way that makes them undetectable by the immune system. When this happens, cancer cells can divide and reproduce at a very fast rate. 

How Does Immunotherapy Treat Cancer?

Immunotherapy works with the body to restore a compromised immune system or to modify and strengthen a healthy immune system to help it identify and kill cancer cells. 
Immunotherapy can work in a few different ways:

Immunotherapy works with the body to restore a compromised immune system or to modify and strengthen a healthy immune system to help it identify and kill cancer cells.

  • Cancer vaccines: Expose the body to antigens associated with certain types of cancers, so that the immune system can easily identify threatening cancer cells and destroy them. 
  • Monoclonal antibodies and tumor-agnostic therapies: Monoclonal antibodies attach to cancer cells to help the immune system identify them. Tumor agnostic therapies help the immune system to identify tumors throughout the body that have the same mutation. 
  • Non-specific immunotherapies: Given at the same time as other cancer treatments. Non-specific immunotherapies stimulate and strengthen the overall immune system, instead of focusing on one specific type of cell.  
  • T-cell therapy: T-cells are special kinds of immune cells. With T-cell therapy, the patient’s T-cells are isolated from a blood sample, altered in a laboratory so that they can identify cancer cells, and are then placed back into the body.  
  • Oncolytic virus therapy: Uses genetically modified viruses that attack cancer cells, but leave the patient’s healthy cells unharmed. 

Although there are numerous different types of immunotherapy, the result of each one is the same—a restored or improved immune system that is better equipped to fight cancer cells.

Can Immunotherapy Be Used to Treat All Types of Cancer?

Immunotherapy is currently used to treat many types of cancer, like breast cancer, skin cancer, and colorectal cancer, but it is not yet available to treat all types of cancer. Scientists continue to develop and research immunotherapies to be able to treat as many cancer patients as possible. 

The Future of Immunotherapy

Today, immunotherapy is mostly given by intravenous infusion or by injection. Less commonly, an immunotherapy that can be administered as a pill and, in the case of skin cancer, as a cream. However, new advancements in research show that, in the future, all immunotherapies might have the potential to be administered as a pill, significantly simplifying the treatment process and improving the patient experience.  



How Can Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) Help Aging Men?

Testosterone is a hormone that is important for the male body. It regulates sex drive, maintains bone mass, and helps facilitate the production of red blood cells. As men age, levels of testosterone decline. Between the ages of 30 and 40, testosterone levels in men can start to decrease by as much as one percent every year. When men reach the age of 50, testosterone levels can get very low (referred to as hypogonadism or low-t), triggering a wide range of symptoms, including erectile dysfunction and fatigue.

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a type of hormone replacement therapy that aims to increase testosterone levels in the body and treat symptoms of low-t in men. TRT can be administered in many forms, including injections, skin patches, or even as a pill. How can TRT help men who are losing testosterone due to aging? 

Treating Mood Disorders

Studies have shown that men with lower levels of testosterone are more likely to develop depression compared to men with higher testosterone levels. An analysis of 27 research studies that, in total, included more than 1,800 men shows that testosterone treatments can help reduce depressive symptoms in men. A separate study discovered that testosterone increases the number of proteins that transport serotonin throughout the brain. Serotonin is an important chemical in the body that helps regulate mood, and low serotonin levels have been linked to depression.

Recovering Bone and Muscle Mass

Men with low-t are more likely to gain weight, which can lead to serious health conditions, like diabetes and heart disease. In addition to weight gain, low-t can also cause men to lose muscle and bone mass, increasing their risk of osteoporosis and fractures. 

A recent study shows that testosterone therapy can help men 65 years and older increase bone mass and bone strength after one year of treatment with testosterone gel. The results of this study give researchers hope that testosterone may also be able to reduce the risk of fractures, but long-term studies and more research are needed to determine this. 

Improving Memory and Cognitive Function

Low testosterone levels are associated with impaired memory. One study compared the working memory ability of men with normal testosterone levels and men with extremely low testosterone levels (caused by testosterone deprivation therapy (TDT) for the treatment of prostate cancer). Men who had undergone TDT experienced memory loss at a faster rate than men with normal testosterone levels. 

Testosterone therapy has been found to help improve spatial memory (orientation) and verbal memory (remembering words and information that are said out loud) in men with low testosterone. The amount of testosterone administered to patients may play a role in testosterone’s ability to improve memory. 

Is Testosterone Replacement Therapy Right for You?

Testosterone treatment offers both benefits and risks to men. If you’re interested in learning more about testosterone therapy and whether it is right for you, talk to your doctor. Signs and symptoms of aging may occur for reasons other than low testosterone. Your doctor will test your testosterone levels to determine if you may be a candidate for TRT.